Different Types and Working Principal of Hydraulic Pumps

Hydraulic pumps are certainly not new to the industry. Rather, it is precise to say that hydraulic pumps have paved their way in countless industrial applications. Automobile, chemical, mechanical, water technology, mining are few of the industries that use hydraulic pumps regularly. Since the device has such great significance in multiple industries, it must be discussed in detail. Therefore, this post introduces hydraulic pumps followed by their working principle.

What Are Hydraulic Pumps?

Hydraulic pumps are mechanical devices that transfer fluid from low potential source to the high potential source. These pumps are designed to convert mechanical energy into hydraulic power, thus the name. This hydraulic power can be hydrostatic or hydrodynamic in nature.

As the name suggests, these hydraulic pumps are compatible with hydraulic drive systems. These hydraulic pumps are constructed by assembling multiple mechanical components that drive the energy from one source to another. Therefore, irrespective of the type, the hydraulic pumps feature energy driving components. The driving components can be gears, cavities, pistons, etc. The type of driving component defines the type of hydraulic pumps.

A Brief Discussion on the Working Principle of Hydraulic pumps

The working principle of hydraulic pumps is exactly opposite to the natural energy law. Naturally, the energy flows from a high potential source to a low potential source. However, the principle of hydraulic pumps is reverse, as the energy is driven from a low potential source to a high potential source using mechanical or electrical energy. These industrial pumps are equipped with rotating parts, which are operated using electricity. The principle working of hydraulic pumps can be described as the conversion of mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. To understand this principle, we need to understand the construction of hydraulic pump and how each part works. This is covered in detail in the next section.

Hydraulic Pumps: How Do They Work

The hydraulic pump consists of a hollow casing, called pump casing, which houses the mechanical driving components like gears, buckets, spools, etc.  The casing has two openings, an inlet, and an outlet. To initiate the working of a hydraulic pump, the vacuum is created inside the pump casing, which causes the fluid to be sucked in. Once the fluid is inside the casing, the driving elements or components are partially or completely filled with the fluid or it comes in contact with it. The driving components are mounted on one or multiple rotating shafts, which causes the mechanical energy to push the fluid towards an outlet. The force exerted on the driving components equals the weight of the fluid being transported.

This is the basic working of the hydraulic pumps. However, factors like fluid density, driving force, hydraulic friction, and hydrodynamics make a huge impact on the process. Yet to be precise, hydraulic pumps drive hydraulic energy from low pressure to high volume tank by consuming mechanical energy.

Know About Different Types of Hydraulic Pumps

Hydraulic pumps are usually preferred for low-pressure, high volume applications. This means the pumps will drive low-pressure fluids to flow at high speed. This energization of fluids is accomplished in many ways. So, hydraulic pumps are named after the parts that are used to produce energization or their method of operation. The following are a few important types of hydraulic pumps:

  • Gear pumps: This is one of the most common types of hydraulic pumps used. They are constructed by assembling two gears, where the external teeth of the inner gear mesh with the internal teeth of the outer gear. The gears are mounted on eccentric shafts, therefore, the teeth meshing causes a cavity, which is used to entrap fluid while pumping it. The volumetric efficiency of these pumps is over 90%.
  • Rotary vane pumps: These pumps have vanes mounted on the rotary shaft that comes in contact with the cavities on the casing to pump the fluid. This is a positive displacement type of hydraulic pump.
  • Screw pump: This type of hydraulic pump consists of a pair of Archimedes screws where the threads of each interlock with another. The fluid is entrapped in the thread to pump it.
  • Axial piston pumps: This is a piston-cylinder based hydraulic pimp. The fluid is sucked in and pumped out due to pump motion. Here, the arrangement of the piston-central axis can be inclined or parallel.
  • Radial piston pumps: Unlike axial piston pumps, here the pumps are mounted radially around the circumference of a rotor shaft. The cavities are made on the pump casing through, which the pistons pump fluid to the outlet.                                                                                       

Now, that hydraulic pumps are well introduced and their working principle is explained, the buyer needs to know that quality makes the product worth utilization. Therefore, if you are intending to buy hydraulic pumps, you must source it from a prominent. We provides unused and used hydraulic pumps from industry-leading brands. All the surplus and used industrial pumps are tested for their operability and are proven to offer the best value for investment. All used hydraulic pumps offered by JM Industrial can be availed at much-reduced prices than their original, new counterparts.